Did Steve Hannagan Help Standard Oil Oppose

Mexico’s Expropriation of Foreign Oil Companies?

The Blog author has received a question: “Could we confirm if Steve Hannagan was in charge of a campaign on behalf of the Standard Oil Corporation in 1938 following the expropriation of their assets in Mexico?” After researching this question, I cannot conclusively answer it; however, there is some history in Wikipedia that may be helpful.[1]

The expropriation of Standard Oil’s assets in Mexico took place following an ongoing dispute between the Petroleum Workers Union of Mexico and all foreign oil companies operating in Mexico at the time. The dispute started on August 16, 1935, when the Petroleum Union presented the companies with a demand for payment of 65 million pesos to compensate them for below-market wages and benefits. The oil companies refused and counter offered with 14 million pesos. The dispute went to the Arbitration Board, which sided with the Union.

After several years with no action by the companies on the ruling of the Arbitration Board, the Union issued a demand to the foreign oil companies on November 3, 1937, to sign the agreement. By May 17,1938, with the issue still unsettled, the Union called for a strike that began on May 28, 1938.

On June 9, 1938, following the advice of the President of Mexico, the Union lifted the strike. He counselled the Union leaders to present their case to the General Arbitration and Conciliation Board. The Board formed a commission of financial experts who investigated the petroleum companies’ finances and concluded that their profits easily permitted them to cover the demands of the workers. The Board ordered the oil companies to pay 26 million pesos for wages and benefits to the workers.  However, the oil companies’ management claimed that the amount of the payment would bankrupt them, and they again refused to pay the judgement.

Despite the Arbitration Board’s order to make payment, the companies continued to ignore the Board’s order; and by December 8, 1938, management began hiring new employees to replace Union workers. On December 18, the Arbitration Board made a formal declaration in favor of the Union by means of a “laudo” (binding judgment in arbitration) which demanded that the companies fulfil the requirements of the petitions and pay 26 million pesos in lost salaries. The petroleum companies filed a lawsuit on January 8, 1939, to protect their property from the Arbitration Board’s declaration. The court subsequently rendered their decision on March 1, giving the companies until March 7 to pay the 26 million pesos penalty.

The refusal of the companies to comply with the court rulings led to the President nationalizing the U.S. and AngloDutch oil operating companies on March 18, 1939. On June 7, 1939, President Cárdenas issued a decree creating PEMEX (Petróleos Mexicanos) with exclusive rights over exploration, extraction, refining, and commercialization of oil in Mexico. On June 20, PEMEX started operations and took over the assets of the foreign oil companies.

The oil companies retaliated with a public relations campaign against Mexico, urging people to stop buying Mexican goods and lobbying to embargo U.S. technology to Mexico. Many foreign governments closed their markets to Mexican oil, hoping that PEMEX would drown in its own oil. U.S. oil companies did not get any support from the U.S. government either because of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor Policy to recalibrate U.S.-Latin American relations.

See the source image

Standard Oil Refinery – Mexico[2]

So back to the question of whether Steve Hannagan ran the Standard Oil press campaign opposing the expropriation of their operations by the Mexican government. The question is difficult to answer for two reasons. Firstly, Hannagan’s files were destroyed after his death when they were incinerated by a cleaning crew who misidentified the files as trash. Secondly, the files of Standard Oil on this matter are unavailable.


  1. The discussion paraphrases an article found in Wikipedia; “Mexican Oil Expropriation”; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican_oil_expropriation.
  2. Sanchez, Karina Cerino; Historia de la Industria Petrolera en Mexico; (Retrieved August 18, 2020): https://www.bing.com/images/search?view=detailV2&ccid=F8E8GrWv&id=6006C2B7DE04E81FE01900F992C7B092D22882B8&thid=OIP.F8E8GrWvtAGXI6MPZnPowQHaFo&mediaurl=https%3a%2f%2fi.pinimg.com%2foriginals%2f82%2f9a%2fc3%2f829ac3eea2130c93c91bf02d7980f37f.jpg&exph=954&expw=1255&q=standard+oil+mexico+refineries&simid=608030295307194020&ck=5585B6F40931F959D10F48F7FD560E71&selectedIndex=8&FORM=IRPRST&ajaxhist=0

Interview with Mrs. Toni Breihan:

A Favorite Secretary of Steve Hannagan

From New York model and secretary, to WWII war bride, to 1950’s St. Louis homemaker, to supportive parent and volunteer, to a professional St. Louis tour guide and trainer, to St. Louis Cathedral docent, to world traveler and lifelong learner, to senior living dining-out organizer—Mrs. Toni Breihan has led a remarkable life over the past 100 years.

Miss Toni Corcoran began her life a century ago on July 2, 1920, in New York City. Always precocious and in search of adventure, she graduated early from high school, attended business school in Manhattan, and began an exciting career as a secretary/personal assistant. Among her employers was the press agent legend Steve Hannagan, who developed some of the first big publicity campaigns for the Indy 500, Miami Beach, Sun Valley, and Las Vegas. She had a valuable asset that Hannagan liked—her Irish name and heritage. He hired children of the Irish whenever he could, finding them loyal and hardworking. Hiring the Irish made Hannagan feel good about his own Irish background.

When Toni worked at Steve Hannagan & Associates in New York City, she worked directly with his Executive Assistant Margaret Ray, who was Hannagan’s chief assistant from the early 1920s at the Indianapolis 500 to his passing in 1953.

While working for Steve Hannagan, Toni found his top assistants, Larry Smits and Joe Copps, provided levity to the intense work day that could last twenty-four hours in the midst of a big campaign. Although the work was intense with long hours, as a young woman, it was also a fun and often exciting time working for Hannagan and Associates.

Steve hired former college athletes for their star power in various press and promotional campaigns. The “Hannagan Athletes” did not take their heroic image seriously, but they were great fun. They seemed to always be up to something, slipping away every afternoon to the first-floor coffee shop to spend time with the John Powers, high-powered fashion models who were in the same building on Park Avenue. Hannagan often had to stomp down to the coffee shop where he bellowed for his lost employees to return to work.

One of Toni’s favorite employees at Hannagan & Associates was Paul Snell, who operated out of Hollywood. He brought stars along with him when he came to New York. Another favorite was Kathy Harriman, Averill Harriman’s daughter. Mr. Harriman was President of the Union Pacific, head of a major investment firm, advisor to President Roosevelt, Coordinator of Lend-Lease in London, and Ambassador to Russia. Steve Hannagan promoted Harriman’s Sun Valley project. Harriman hired Steve to turn an unknown ski resort in Idaho into an international destination and a recreation site for Hollywood stars and Eastern elite. During World War II, Harriman wanted his daughter to accompany him to London on a business trip, but England did not permit visitors. So, Steve hired Kathy Harriman as an Associate in London where she became good friends with Randolph Churchill’s (Winston Churchill’s wayward son) wife Pamela. Years later, Pamela, after divorcing Randolph Churchill, married Avril Harriman, becoming Kathy Harriman’s step-mother.

Anyone who knew Hannagan in this period knew that he was an exercise and health pill fanatic. Regularly, he would call Toni into his office to join him in his calisthenics routine. For Toni, this meant changing from her work attire into exercise apparel and then back. In speaking with Toni, she noted that she enjoyed the break but would have liked showering before returning to work!

While working at Hannagan & Associates, Toni produced most of Steve’s letters. He always ended each letter with the happy phrase – ‘Cheerfully yours, Steve’. Many of his letters are floating around in corporate and research library archives; but sadly, Steve’s files were lost to an overly- zealous janitor. When Hannagan & Associates set his files out to be stored, a janitor sent them instead to the incinerator. Many famous letters were lost to history.

Toni remembered working with Steve Hannagan as one of the great moments in her life.

After leaving Hannagan & Associates. Toni worked as a hat model for a New York designer and was known as “Miss C” because they thought she had a bit of “attitude.” Toni also volunteered as an Officers’ Club hostess during World War II, where a deeply-tanned, blond Navy lieutenant in his dress whites, just back from fighting in the South Pacific, swept her off her feet. She and Erv Breihan ended up tying the knot in 1945 and eventually settled in the officer’s home town of St. Louis.

Toni Corcoran Breihan & George Gunderson, a WW II soldier from Holland

St. Louis in the late 1940s was quite a shock for this lively New Yorker who was accustomed to the orchestra striking up her favorite tune when she entered a night club like the Copacabana. But she quickly assimilated, learning to love the city where she would live the rest of her life. In fact, she became one of its biggest cheerleaders.

Toni and Erv raised three children, first in Affton and then in unincorporated South St. Louis County, where they built their home Star Hill in 1959 on ten acres of land—an idyllic place to live. Toni also trained and showed her Shetland Sheepdog named Laddie in Obedience trials— teaching him to retrieve dumbbells, to jump over hurdles, and to find her scent on one article hidden among many. She and Laddie were very successful, winning many trophies; they even demonstrated their skills on The Charlotte Peters television show broadcast on KSD-TV (now KSDK).

Erv was a noted expert on airport and highway construction and also served as President of the Missouri Society of Professional Engineers. Toni was active in the corresponding organizations for engineers’ wives, planning the ladies’ programs for numerous conventions. Toni and Erv were charter members of the St. Louis Ambassadors, organized in the 1960’s under Mayor Alfonso J. Cervantes to promote the revitalization of St. Louis. Toni and Erv also invested in the Goldenrod Showboat on the St. Louis riverfront, helping to renovate it, including spending a weekend washing the pieces of crystal from its chandeliers.

Toni retired from many of her community engagements in the 1990’s, but she became a docent at the Cathedral Basilica of St. Louis and gave tours of the Basilica. She always cherished the Cathedral, partly because her next-door neighbor and dear friend, Arno Heuduck, and his father had created most of the famed mosaics there.

When Erv passed away in 2002, Toni entered another stage of life. Never one to sit still for long, she soon began organizing Dining Out with Toni—where she would research St. Louis restaurants and set up a monthly dinner out with her building residents.

Toni Corcoran Breihan at home in St. Louis

Toni met another man who became significant in her life—Bill Malcolm. Bill was a widower who loved to sing Frank Sinatra-style songs and entertained in various locales. Toni even picked up modeling again—frequently working for a local “real people” modeling agency in print and television ads. Bill passed away in 2016, and Toni has continued to enjoy her many friendships. Walking is not quite as easy as it was a year ago, but Toni is still a lively conversationalist, voracious reader, fashion lover, and Jeopardy fan.

Toni Breihan has made her 100 years on earth count!

Steve Hannagan

Random Notes – Special Issue #1

Random Notes: Here are several items that do not appear in the book but illustrate who Steve Hannagan was.

  • Final Event of the 1939 Baseball Centennial

On June 12, 1939, Steve Hannagan brought together at Cooperstown the living members of the Baseball Hall Fame for a photograph. The Encyclopedia Britannia included the photograph in its Book of the Year. Present that day were:

Babe Ruth, Eddie Collins, Connie Mack, Cy Young, Honus Wagner, Grover Alexander, Tris Speaker, George Sisler and Walter Johnson.i

  • Why Hannagan called himself a Press Agent and not a Public Relations Consultant

“A public relations consultant is a guy who uses six-syllable words to explain to his client why he can’t get two syllable words into the newspapers.” ii

“A good press agent is only a good newspaperman with some business judgement. “ iii

  • What is good publicity?

“Publicity is using thought instead of money. Good publicity is only good news. Tell you story accurately, advantageously, interestingly, and entertainingly and be sure you have a story to tell. Now, I ask you, where the hell is there any magic in that?” iv

  • What is not good publicity?

Once, a staff member of Steve’s explained a new publicity idea that he had. “Hannagan said, Sounds good. Is it true? Well-l-l-l. Steve’s voice resounded through his suite of offices. Don’t you ever do anything unethical.”v

  • Steve the Cosmopolitan Uplands Hunter

Once Steve won the Coca-Cola account, a seasonal ritual, was a hunting trip on Robert Woodruff’s 47,000-acre plantation – Ichauway. vi The problem is that Hannagan had never hunted, did not know one end of a gun from another, and preferred his outdoors with a whiskey and good friends. To his chagrin, Hannagan took a lot of ribbing about his lack of hunting prowess. He took it all with good cheer knowing the value of the Coca-Cola contract to his firm.

  • Hannagan Working for Albert Lasker of Lord & Thomas

“I loved Albert Laker before I worked for him, and I loved him after I worked for him, but I didn’t love him while I was working for him.”vii

  • O.O. McIntyre, New York Columnist, Tells Readers about Hannagan

“Steve Hannagan, who for years press-agented Miami Beach and Indianapolis motor races, … [went to work] in the executive office of an advertising agency. But living by rote [was] way too much of a strain on his roaming Irishry, so he burst loose again recently as a professional ballyhooer on his own.”viiiix

  • Steve and the Hannagan Beauties of Miami Beach

In the heyday of the Hannagan era at Miami Beach, more than 500 newspapers published his pictures and stories of beauties. Periodicals in England printed his pictures but complained that they weren’t getting enough leg art from him.x

The five major American newsreel companies – Hearst Metrotone, Fox, Pathe, Paramount, and Universal – filmed his Miami Beach women and sent them as part of their weekly newscasts to theaters across the country. These bits from Miami Beach were seen by sixty million movie goers each week.xi

  • Hannagan’s Fourth Air Crash!

In 1935, Steve returned from Hollywood by. At 9,000 feet the engines shut down. The pilot successfully landed the plane 21 miles east of Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Hannagan’s response to the crash was: Hell, I’ve been in better crashes since 1920. This one was the least spectacular of the four I’ve been in.”xii (When he flew with Eddie Rickenbacker to publicize his new airplane in 1920, they crashed three times after running out of fuel.)

  • Sample of Hannagan and Hemingway Correspondence

“Dear Steve” Glad to hear from you kid…. have done sets of galleys, [Across the River and into the Trees] and now waiting for the page proofs. Have worked on it 18 months and gone over it about 200 times and I swear to Christ that when it is finished, I will not go around reading passages from it to my friends at the Stork. I will give Sherman (Billingsley) a copy and if I don’t get … [unreadable word] I [will] refund twice the price of the book….”xiii

  • Hannagan Epigram on Value

A well-known news reporter told Hannagan’s Chief Assistant in Hollywood that he would work for free so that he could be with Steve Hannagan. “Hannagan wrote back. Don’t hire him. Anything for free is too expensive.” xiv

  • Hannagan Legend vs Real Steve Hannagan

Robert Chernoff, who was hired by one of Hannagan’s Chief Associates, while Hannagan was away from New York.

“A few days later Chernoff was sitting in Smits’s [office] when in strode a ruddy-faced man with a camel’s hair coat and his hat cocked to the left side. Chernoff started to jump to his feet, but the man put his hand on Chernoff’s shoulder and said ‘Sit down …my name’s Steve Hannagan.’ Brought up on a diet of stories about Steve Hannagan, Chernoff hardly could believe his eyes. ‘I guess maybe I expected him to be eight feet tall,’ he said afterword’s. ‘But my first reaction was surprise at this short stature.’ Actually, Steve was of middling height, Chernoff found Hannagan short only by contrast with his image he had of Hannagan.” xv

  • Steve Hannagan Preferred Hoosiers As His Top Staffers
    • Hannagan’s Executive Assistant, Margaret Ray, was from Paoli, Indiana.
    • His telephone operator was from Indiana.
    • Hannagan told Harry Geisler, an eminent attorney from California, that; “If I had my way about it, they’d [all] be from Indiana.”xvi
    • Many of Hannagan’s employees thought “that the only way to get ahead in the Hannagan organization was to have been born in Steve’s home state.”xvii

i Ross, Edward Ellis; Unpublished notebook, source; New York University Archives; p. 4.

ii Ross, Edward Ellis; Unpublished notebook, source; New York University Archives; p. 6.

iii Ross, Edward Ellis; Unpublished notebook, source; New York University Archives; p. 6.

iv Ross, Edward Ellis; Unpublished notebook, source; New York University Archives; p. 7.

v Ross, Edward Ellis; Unpublished notebook, source; New York University Archives; p. 12.

vi Ross, Edward Ellis; Unpublished notebook, source; New York University Archives; p. 12

vii Ross, Edward Ellis; Unpublished notebook, source; New York University Archives; p. 149.

viii Ross, Edward Ellis; Unpublished notebook, source; New York University Archives; p. 152.


x Ross, Edward Ellis; Unpublished notebook, source; New York University Archives; p.84.

xi Ross, Edward Ellis; Unpublished notebook, source; New York University Archives; p.85.

xii Ross, Edward Ellis; Unpublished notebook, source; New York University Archives; p. 152.

xiii Ross, Edward Ellis; Unpublished notebook, source; New York University Archives; p. 179.

xiv Ross, Edward Ellis; Unpublished notebook, source; New York University Archives; p. 297.

xv Ross, Edward Ellis; Unpublished notebook, source; New York University Archives; p. 297.

xvi Ross, Edward Ellis; Unpublished notebook, source; New York University Archives; p. 298.

xvii Ross, Edward Ellis; Unpublished notebook, source; New York University Archives; p. 298.

Steve Hannagan’s Blog will tell the story of a peer without peers among press agents in the first half of the twentieth century. Hannagan was a highly-successful pioneer of public relations who built ground-breaking publicity campaigns for the Indianapolis 500, Miami Beach, Sun Valley, Las Vegas, the 1940 Presidential Campaign, and Coca Cola. He developed, tested, and refined many of the press and publicity principles commonly used today.

Steve Hannagan at the Height of His Famei

Along the way, Steve Hannagan knew or worked with most major figures and celebrities of his era. His colleagues and friends spanned business, Hollywood, Broadway, New York’s Café Society, the news media, politics, and sports.

Hannagan was a garrulous, charming, whip-smart press agent who never pulled a phony deal. His honesty and charm opened doors to the powerful. His press campaigns were sensational or subtle and always caught the eye of the intended audience. His success always ensured a steady stream of business to his firm.

The Hannagan Blog will be issued regularly with new stories about Steve plus his promotional principals called the “Hannagan Way.” Below are several vignettes that will introduce you to Steve Hannagan and to the stories and pictures that you will see in future editions of the Blog.

Steven Hannagan’s Indianapolis 500 Campaign:

From 1919 to 1945, Steve Hannagan and his firm were the publicists for the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Steve came to the Speedway in 1919, when Carl Fisher, founder and President of the track, asked Russell Seeds for help in spurring track attendance that had stagnated after several years of spectacular growth. Seeds sent Steve to the track, where he turned the Indianapolis 500 into a household word during the month of May.

Steve Hannagan with good friend Ralph De Palma,

Indianapolis 500 Champion and fan favoriteii

Steve Hannagan and Captain Eddie Rickenbacker

Steve Hannagan Multi-State Promotion with Captain Eddie Rickenbacker

Steve met Eddie Rickenbacker in his first years at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. At that time, Rickenbacker was setting out on a 48 state promotional trip of his new metal monoplane and need a publicist. Rickenbacker enlisted Steve as a flying publicist to deliver press releases to local newspapers at each landing. Steve also sent a running commentary of the large crowds meeting them and several emergency landings due to loss of fuel. They reached more than forty states before Rickenbacker abandoned the publicity tour after the third emergency landing damaged the plane. After the conclusion of the flight, Steve provided Illustrated Weekly, a national popular scientific publication, with the full story of the flight.

Steve with the crew next to the plane.

Steve is on the left and Rickenbacker is holding a Panama hat. iii

Steve promotes Rickenbacker new auto venture. In the early 1920s, Rickenbacker organized the Rickenbacker Motor Company. The car was handsomely designed technological marvel. He began production of the Rickenbacker in 1922 and soon after asked Steve Hannagan to help promote the new car. However, the automobile struggled because of its high price, $5,000 ($70,000 in current dollars). Rickenbacker did not enjoy manufacturing and soon told Steve that he should move to Miami Beach to work for Carl Fisher, where there were greater opportunities.

Steve Hannagan in the Rickenbacker

The 1926 Indianapolis 500 Pace Cariv

Steve and Rickenbacker – Lasting Friends; in 1922, Steve was Rickenbacker’s best man at his wedding. They remained close friendship to the end with Rickenbacker as executor of Steve Hannagan’s will.

Steve Ballyhoos Miami Beach

In the mid-twenties, Carl Fisher brought Steve Hannagan to Miami Beach for the same reason that he placed Steve in charge of publicity at the Speedway. Fisher knew that Hannagan’s could juice sales of Fisher’s properties on Miami Beach. Within a few years, Steve turned local Bathing Beauties into icons of the sun and fun open to travelers to Miami Beach. Steve remained head of publicity for the Beach until 1945, when the town wanted to make a change and Steve had moved on to promoting Coca-Cola.

Swimming Dresses in the early 1920sv

Hannagan’s Icons in the 1930svi

Icons in the 1940svii

Hannagan‘s Bathing Beauty Over the Years at Miami Beach

Steve Hannagan Names Sun Valley

Averell Harriman Needs a Destination for Union Pacific Passenger Traffic. During the middle of the Great Depression, the President of the Union Pacific Railroad, Averell Harriman, sought a location for an upscale ski resort to spur Union Pacific passenger traffic. Harriman sent Count Felix Schaffgotsch, an Austrian ski instructor, to scout locations in Wyoming, Colorado, and Idaho. The main condition was that the location had to be near the Union Pacific mainline. The Count found a valley outside of Ketchum, Idaho surrounded by mountains that could be groomed for skiing trails. Harriman liked the proposal, but he had one big question – was the location marketable. This is when Steve Hannagan comes onto the scene.

Steve names Sun Valley; Steve’s first visit to the proposed resort was by rail y handcar from the mainline to Ketchum, Idaho, and then by sleigh. As he rode bundled against the deep freeze temperature of the valley, his first reaction was that the place was too cold to sell as an upscale ski resort. As they entered the valley, he began to shed layers of heavy winter coats. Immediately, he knew the name to give the resort – Sun Valley.

There are many interesting stories about Steve’s contribution to the design of the resort that will be reported in future blogs. For instance, it was Steve Hannagan who came up with the idea of the ski chair.

Steve Hannagan with Averell Harriman during

Construction of the Sun Valley Resort Hotel

(As the photo shows, Steve did not have the physique of a winter athlete.)

Steve Competes with Joe Kennedy for the Affection of Gloria Swanson

Gloria Swanson, Hollywood movie star and paramour of the fabulously wealthy Joseph P. Kennedy, became a close companion of Steve’s during his early years in Miami Beach. It is hard to imagine how Steve could compete with Joe Kenned. Nevertheless, Steve briefly gained the upper hand before Joe took his affair with Swanson seriously. Whenever Swanson stopped by Steve’s office to see him, work stopped, and all the unregenerate men ogled the sleek actress. Dan Mahoney, editor of the Miami Herald and close friend of Steve’s, later said that “Miss Swanson was crazy about Steve.

Swanson in the 1920sviii


Steve Hannagan told his associates and friends, Coca-Cola was the best job that he ever had. Steve’s two responsibilities at The Coca-Cola Company were to act, first as a buffer between the press and President, Robert Wordruff, and second to assist in marketing Coca-Cola. As Woodruffs buffer, Steve advised him on how to deal with national and international issues affecting the Company. A later edition of the Hannagan Blog will cover what he did to help Coca-Cola expand globally by overcoming an attempt by the French government to ban the soft drink. For the second responsibility, marketing of Coca-Cola, Steve devised a massive product placement campaign in Hollywood movies, the radio, and television.

Product Placement; Jack Benny in the left-handed picture advertised Coca-Cola on his shows but also included Coca-Cola in his radio and television. Before Steve passed, he refined product placement into a well-honed tool for publicizing a product. Product placement became a major component of the ‘Hannagan Way’.

Another device from the ‘Hannagan Way’ that Hannagan applied to Coca-Cola involved the addition of a beautiful young woman to the sales pitch. In the picture below and to the right is Kaye Williams, a favorite of Hannagan’s in the 1950’s. Later she became Clark Gable’s last wife and the mother of his only child.

Jack Bennyix Kaye Williamsx


i Photograph of Steve Hannagan (January 1950); Image 50712327 Photo Lofman/Pix Inc./Time Life Pictures/Getty Images.

ii Photograph of Ralph DePalma; retrieved July 1, 2012; http://www.flickr.com/photos/indianapolismotorspeedway/6384991439/.

iii Photograph of Steve Hannagan and Eddie Rickenbacker next to the monoplane (retrieved February 2, 20/13);

iv Photograph of Steve Hannagan in the 1926 Pace Car (June 28, 2011) ; copy from the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Photograph Library.

vi Photograph of a model with an umbrella in the 1930s (retrieved March 5, 2013); http://www.floridamemory.com/items/show/3702.

ix Photograph of Jack Benny (retrieved December 28, 2014); http://www.jackbenny.org/Pix/Portraits/1961_1974/benny%20gesture.jpg.

x Photograph of Kay Williams in Coca-Cola Advertisement (retrieved November 25, 2014); http://www.amazon.com/Coca-Cola-International-Illustration-drinking-Colliers/dp/B0081S624Q.